Green productivity focuses on enhancing productivity and environmental performance for sustainable development in the industry to achieve competitive advantage. The industry has not only increase product value; it also needs to use the value chain. Thus, the critical point is to decrease the environmental impact throughout the value chain, from raw material supply to the final product. The environmental impact emanates from energy use, consumption of natural resources, and pollution-related problems [ 14 ].
The environment is damaged by the exploitation of the global natural resources for economic development. The process causes pollution that spread to the entire world via wind and water. As a result, many countries under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC have sought to combat carbon emissions which have been proven by scientists as a contributor to the global phenomenon of climate change or global warming [ 15 ].
Sustainable development is characterized by energy consumption and production, greenhouse gas GHG emissions, and climate change. As these issues are interrelated, they are better considered in an integrated manner and linked to economic, social, and environmental implications. Scientists have proven that the increased consumption of fossil fuels oil, coal, and gas as energy source for development adversely affects the global climate. The ensuing severe climatic conditions lead to global warming and heavy rain with devastating floods and melting of ice in the polar region raising the seal level.
As the price of oil rises with increasing demand, the cost of production of goods and services increases, affecting the supply chain costs. In view of these increasing costs, solutions in the form of resource efficiency and technology innovation emerge as opportunities for reducing costs and increasing competitiveness and employment which are critical factors to managing an effective supply chain [ 7 ], p.
Sustainability and green initiatives focus on dematerialization, detoxification, and decarbonization processes that culminate into 4Rs reduction, redesign, reuse, and remanufacture [ 16 ], pp. The poisonous materials which are in the form of industrial waste and pollution contaminate in the environment. The degradation of the environment threatens the living condition of the organisms in the ecosystem.
Decarbonization de-energization : it is the reduction of greenhouse gas GHG emissions in the atmosphere that occur when burning fossil fuels for electricity generation. The most abundant GHG is carbon dioxide that has been proven by environmental scientists to be a contributor to the global phenomenon of climate or global warming. To achieve sustainable goals or greening the environment, redesigning of products is crucial, reducing energy consumption use of renewable energy , reusing the returned products, and remanufacturing the damaged products [ 18 ], pp.
Supply chain operations reference SCOR model is a diagnostic benchmarking and improvement process for supply chain operations. The SCOR model was established in as a tool for manufacturing and service organizations. It is managed by Supply Chain Council SCC that among other roles educates the supply council members on its application [ 19 ], pp. The SCOR model integrates the supply chain members by linking the delivery operations of the seller to the sourcing operations of the buyer.
This is done in six categories: plan, source, make, deliver, return, and enable:.
Source : this comprises sourcing of stocks, make to order, engineer to order, scheduling deliveries, selecting suppliers, and managing incoming inventories. Make : the production process: make to stock, make to order, engineer to order, and other production networks. Deliver : it involves order preparation, warehouse, transportation, and distribution of products. Return : return of purchased materials to suppliers and finished goods from customers and managing the return process.
Enable : the process of establishing, maintaining, and monitoring information, relationships, resources, assets, design, planning, and execution of supply chain. Advancing GSCM requires a high level of supplier-customer information-sharing relationship in a form of collaboration and integration. Supply chain collaboration SCC is a relationship between supply chain partners developed over some time. Collaboration commences with open-market negotiations, whereby fewer suppliers cooperate to supply a common customer.
Cooperation entails organizations working jointly toward the same goal as in ensuring customer satisfaction. The relationship moves to the next level of coordination through information linkages as in the use of electronic data interchange EDI. Coordination entails the ability of different organizations sorting out their complexities in a working-together relationship, as supply chain partners do to deliver value to customer.
Subsequently, collaboration is achieved when organizations start joint planning and technology sharing supply chain integration. This indicates that supply chain integration is an enabler of collaboration [ 19 ], pp.
The system can't perform the operation now. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. In this scenario, the present research aims to identify the contributions that green logistics and green procurement bring to the management of the green supply chain. An Illuminating reverse logistics initiative, born of the sustainable development philosophy at DuPont, is the methanolysis of polymers and plastics, popularly termed unzipping polymers, to recover near-virgin material. Home Blog. Sustainability , v.
Supply chain collaboration is experienced in two types: vertical collaboration and horizontal collaboration [ 20 ], p. Vertical collaboration is the relationship between suppliers external , focal organization internal , and customers external. Horizontal collaboration is experienced when the focal organization internal collaborates with other organizations and the third-party logistics 3PL companies external for joint transportation.
Supply chain integration SCI is the alignment and interlinking of business processes. The alignment and interlinkage of the focal organization with the first-tier suppliers and first-tier customers allow the organization to focus its time and resources on managing important process links with other trading partners.
The conventional way for the focal organizations or manufacturers is to hold a high level of inbound, internal, and outbound inventories to cover for incidental or unplanned orders. These are non-value-added activities which are avoided in GSCM. Lean supply chain requires the suppliers to deliver smaller quantities of raw materials more frequently to the manufacturer.
As frequent smaller inbound transportation and outbound transportation of finished products add costs, suppliers usually locate warehouses near the manufacturing facilities.
In this era of shopping malls, the leading retail chain stores of fast-moving consumer goods FMCGs own distribution centers DCs at convenient locations to receive supplies from different suppliers to ease distribution to their retail outlets. Usually, third-party logistics 3PL companies provide the transportation, although in some isolated situations, retailers substitute 3PL with their own transport. This type of logistics arrangement focuses on timeous delivery, to the right location, in right quantities and qualities.
Ultimately, this lowers the inventory levels and reduces holding costs [ 7 ], p. In GSCM, the manufacturers focus on a limited number of suppliers and customers to collaborate in identifying customer requirements. The collaboration process aims to remove waste, reduce costs, and improve quality and customer service. However, lean management is more practiced outside Japan as both have similar objectives.
JIT enhances supply chain process when suppliers and manufacturers work together or collaborate to enable them to respond more quickly to customer needs. This is done through information-sharing via Internet connectivity, resulting in improved customer service, less inventory holding, and reduced waste.
As the supply chain becomes more streamlined and focused in speedy turnaround of smaller quantities, it assumes the characteristics of GSCM. Hence, JIT is crucial for a supply chain to achieve its primary objectives of low cost, high quality, and fast response [ 7 ], p. Reverse logistics is the process of moving or transporting goods from their final forward destination back to the manufacturer and suppliers for the purpose of creating value or for proper disposal.
Integrating environmental thinking into supply chain management, including ecological design of products, purchasing green materials and components, reengineering of manufacturing steps towards ecofriendly, reverse logistics management of the product after its useful life [ 4 ]. Reducing and controlling the harmful impacts of supply chain on the environment [ 6 ]. Adoption of ecological design, sourcing green materials and chemicals, and provide green trainings to employees under ethical leadership [ 7 ].
In the World, as the environmental awareness is increasing, firms are facing heavy pressure from different stakeholders including government and customers to mitigate their harmful effect on the environment [ 8 ]. Indeed, corporate sector needs to consider integrating their business practices in service and manufacturing industry with sustainability and reducing end-to-end supply chain costs to achieve competitive advantage [ 1 , 9 ].
Rath [ 12 ] identified GSCM green supply chain management plays a part in motivating organizational sustainability. With the environmental concerns rising continuously, GSCM deserves a persistent community concern in developed nations. Further, it has recently woken up the developing nations to the green movement [ 13 ].
There is no doubt that green supply chain is a relatively new idea, which is gaining popularity so as to improve environmental performance in the whole chain [ 5 , 14 ]. Internal environment management contains support and encouragement from senior managers. Internal management is a key critical success factor for enterprises to adopt green practices.
Pressure employees bring about, encouragement and support from environmental-protection motivate senior management. Meanwhile, the perception of environmental risks involved could bring positive change in adoption of green practices [ 8 , 15 , 16 ]. In green supply chains, customers play an important and effective part [ 13 ]. Cooperation with customers becomes very useful to attain fruitful advantages from green supply chain management [ 7 , 18 ]. Green supply chain practices are unable to be adopted without active participation of customers and suppliers [ 19 , 20 ]. Strong collaboration with suppliers enhances incentive systems, boosts the adoption and development of innovative ecofriendly ideas.
Technologies, green partnership agreements and openness in implementation of innovative green practices may generate enhancement in operational and environmental performance so as to achieve economic goals of firms [ 21 ].
nttsystem.xsrv.jp/libraries/10/zyqoc-iphone-6s-passcode.php A number of published researches showed that competence and relevant elements could play a part in green practices implementation in their supply chain [ 22 , 23 ]. A number of researchers found the significance of societal factors for attaining environmental friendly practices objectives [ 15 , 22 , 24 ]. In addition, NGOs nongovernment organizations , electronic and social media are more effective in exerting pressure on firms to adopt green practices. Increasing prominence of environmental concerns has forced regulatory authorities to strict their environmental laws and policies [ 8 , 26 ].
Hence, it becomes more and more important for firms in supply chain to have conformity with regulations so as to conducting ecofriendly strategies. With numerous green practices adopted, companies in their business and supply chain operations improve their productivity with better environmental growth. While, some well-known green practices are as follows;. With more and more concerns on environmental protection, procurement professionals have been motivated to reconsider their existing sourcing, purchasing strategy and their impact on environmental sustainability [ 29 , 30 ].
The role of ecofriendly purchasing is the involvement of recycling and remanufacturing. Min and Galle [ 31 ] further emphasized green sourcing supporting waste reduction enhances recycling and remanufacturing and other activities in supply chain. The adoption of green purchasing in supply chain and business operations is a reliable tool in mitigating waste, air and water pollution.